An examination of comprehensive moral theories as the right tools for ethical reasoning

It covers issues from moral semantics to moral epistemology.

Normative ethics

Classically influenced virtue theorists, by contrast, give more importance to the training of perception and the emotional growth that must accompany it. Your duties and obligations come from both your personal and professional lives. Remember that deontology is a universal system, so that means any rights that you claim you also have to grant to all others. In , a couple from Bloomington, Indiana gave birth to a baby with severe mental and physical disabilities. They are also sometimes called nonconsequentialist since these principles are obligatory, irrespective of the consequences that might follow from our actions. How does someone who follows virtue ethics determine what the virtues are without applying some yardstick such as those provided by utilitarian and deontological ethics? This view is called psychological egoism and maintains that self-oriented interests ultimately motivate all human actions. Harman The thought that our moral reasoning either requires or is benefited by a virtual quantitative crutch of this kind has a long pedigree. Google Scholar Maze, J.

Two issues, though, are prominent: 1 metaphysical issues concerning whether morality exists independently of humans, and 2 psychological issues concerning the underlying mental basis of our moral judgments and conduct. How can I minimize suffering for all involved?

There is no strict legitimatory correlation between the two. For instance, we may imagine a society in which all its members vote against art or certain forms of jobs or certain models of partnership, say, for religious, non-objective reasons.

When we support a thesis such as a position on one of the above ethical issues with a clear and well-structured argument, we allow and invite others to engage with us in more constructive fashion.

Similarly, some social policies forbid residents in certain neighborhoods from having yard sales. To be sure, the virtuous person may be able to achieve a greater integration of his or her ends via practical reasoning because of the way the various virtues coherebut this is a difference in the result of practical reasoning and not in its structure.

We may take it for granted that it is in accordance with the general will of most people that, under certain circumstances, their hypothetical will is taken into consideration. Interest in virtue theory continued through the middle ages and declined in the 19th century with the rise of alternative moral theories below.

As Sunstein notes Sunsteinchap.

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Moral Reasoning (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)