The past has gone by and the future is uncertain therefore only the here and now is decisive since the immediate feelings are the only guide to what is really genuinely valuable. Aristotle believes for a broad range of cases that kinds have essences discoverable by diligent research.
But some vulnerability to these disruptive forces is present even in more-or-less virtuous people; that is why even a good political community needs laws and the threat of punishment. Thus it then chanc'd to run, tho' varying oft. Sometimes only a small degree of anger is appropriate; but at other times, circumstances call for great anger.
We seek a deeper understanding of the objects of our childhood enthusiasms, and we must systematize our goals so that as adults we have a coherent plan of life. These qualities are discussed in IV.
Part of us—reason—can remove itself from the distorting influence of feeling and consider all relevant factors, positive and negative. That there is energy, therefore, and that a thing then happens to be moved, when this energy exists, and neither prior nor posterior to it, is manifest.
He rejects the existence of Plato's forms in general and the form of the good in particular; and he rejects the idea that in order to become fully virtuous one must study mathematics and the sciences, and see all branches of knowledge as a unified whole.
This, according to Aristotle, is where the Platonists go wrong: they presume univocity where the world delivers homonymy or multivocity.However, in some cases it would be better to adhere to act utilitarianism since it maximises the general utility to a higher degree depending on the particular situation and circumstances of the case in question act utilitarianism. The happiest life is lived by someone who has a full understanding of the basic causal principles that govern the operation of the universe, and who has the resources needed for living a life devoted to the exercise of that understanding. So it is clear that exercising theoretical wisdom is a more important component of our ultimate goal than practical wisdom. That is, if time exists, then what sort of thing is it? And life also belongs to God; for the actuality of thought is life, and God is that actuality; and God's self-dependent actuality is life most good and eternal. Variant translation: Anybody can become angry, that is easy; but to be angry with the right person, and to the right degree, and at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way, that is not within everybody's power and is not easy. But Aristotle's agreement with Socrates is only partial, because he insists on the power of the emotions to rival, weaken or bypass reason. For instance, if we suppose that being rational is essential to human beings, then it will follow that every human being is capable of grammar. Is this passion something that must be felt by every human being at appropriate times and to the right degree? They assert different things These methods comprise his twin appeals to phainomena and the endoxic method. The pleasure of drawing, for example, requires both the development of drawing ability and an object of attention that is worth drawing.
This kind of theory is a form of consequentialism, which means that the moral worth of the particular action is determined by its outcome. This point is developed more fully in Ethics X. The parallel point in ethics is that to make progress in this sphere we must already have come to enjoy doing what is just, courageous, generous and the like.
The virtue of magnificence is superior to mere liberality, and similarly greatness of soul is a higher excellence than the ordinary virtue that has to do with honor.Once we see that temperance, courage, and other generally recognized characteristics are mean states, we are in a position to generalize and to identify other mean states as virtues, even though they are not qualities for which we have a name. They differ, however To keep such destructive inner forces at bay, we need to develop the proper habits and emotional responses when we are children, and to reflect intelligently on our aims when we are adults. At the time of action, the impetuous person experiences no internal conflict. All the philosophical schools — being at odds with each other — are still united by the fact that they are deeply concerned with the most important ethical questions of how to live a good life and how to achieve happiness. As he recognizes, we often find ourselves reasoning from premises which have the status of endoxa, opinions widely believed or endorsed by the wise, even though they are not known to be necessary. It is praiseworthy only if it can be shown that a self-lover will be an admirable citizen.