MacGuffin A plot device coined by Alfred Hitchcock referring to some goal, desired object, or other motivator that the protagonist pursues, often with little or no narrative explanation as to why it is considered so important. This is what a good climax does and what our students should strive to do in their own stories.
Foreshadowing Implicit yet intentional efforts of an author to suggest events which have yet to take place in the process of narration.
This is the narrative strategy frequently adopted by Tolstoj. At the same time, the creative, referential and receptive characteristics of each of the strategies stipulate one another and reject alien characteristics of other strategies.
It is crucial that the narrative strategy correlates not with the narrator, who is free to adopt one narrative tactic or another, but with the implied semantic entity of the abstract author Schmid  : 36— Kemper, Dirk et al. They will be reading this model as writers, looking at how the author shaped the text for a purpose, so that they can use those same strategies in their own writing.
Gillespie, Michael P. Step 3: Introduce the Assignment Up to this point, students have been immersed in storytelling.
Paris: PUF. Each sin's punishment in Dante's Inferno is a symbolic instance of poetic justice. The setting of the story often answers two of the central questions of the story, namely, the where and the when.
Applied to narrative practices, this fundamental distinction avoids identifying the author with the narrator.